On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020.  That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratification of the agreement, concluding the agreement and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU on 31 January 2020, at 11 .m GMT. Some EU rules on food and agriculture also apply to NI during the backstop period. Existing controls on animals and animal products moving from the UK to NI need to be strengthened. The political statement states that provisions to address health and plant protection barriers to trade barriers should be introduced „on the basis of WTO agreements and going beyond.“ The United Kingdom has opted for a regime that requires EU citizens to apply for a new resident status known as „settled“ or „pre-settled.“ It is not yet clear whether each EU-27 will exercise its discretion under the withdrawal agreement to force British residents to apply for a new resident status. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.
   An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of „substantial amendments,“ so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.  The citizens` rights provisions were adopted by the UK and the EU in the draft withdrawal agreement in March 2018.